2017年5月21日 星期日

2就要這樣拜! 拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship! A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship (2 of 2)


The information below was taken from 就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship!  A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship.  The Chinese was written by Good Friends Studio, and the English was written by me.  以下的內容來自就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通這本書.  下列中文的部分是好朋友工作室作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.

Also, this will be the last entry on traditional Chinese religion for a while.  I may return to this subject next semester, or I might do something else entirely.  I was thinking of using Taiwan's transportation infrastructure as a theme, though there is certainly a lot still to be said about traditional Chinese beliefs.  Old or new?  Traditional or modern?  If you have a preference, maybe you can tell me.  還有.  這個文章應該是關於中國傳統宗教的最終.  我不一定下學期還討論這種事情.  我考慮下學期探索台灣的交通基礎設施, 或是繼續中國傳統信仰, 這個範疇還有很多可以討論.  古代的還是現代的?  傳統還是今日的?  如果你有不同的想法, 請讓我知道.1

Oh, and one more thing.  If these entries have made you curious about traditional Chinese religion, I encourage you to visit your local temple, "ceremonial money store," or religious festival.  To be sure, some of the people at some of the temples (or stores) are less than friendly, but there are also temples (or stores) where they're happy to greet visitors, happy to explain things, and happy to interact with foreign people.  還有件事.  如果這些文章讓你對傳統中國信仰很好奇, 建議你參觀附近的廟, 金香鋪, 或是廟會, 一定更有趣.  當然有的廟或店裡的人不是很親切, 可是還有更多廟和金香舖的人不是這樣子.  他們歡迎你的光臨, 又很願意跟外國人介紹他們的宗教信仰.

And in the case of religious festivals, the sooner you see them the better.  Faced with the rising cost of insurance, new environmental regulations, and lack of interest from "modern-thinking" Taiwanese, many of these festivals are shrinking every year.  Some city and county governments have come up with more "eco-friendly" alternatives, but if you ask me these new inventions really aren't the same thing.  A Chinese religious procession without firecrackers?  Without the burning of ceremonial money?  It seems to me that they might as well not bother.  以傳統祭典來說, 早一點去參觀了解比較好.  各廟會都面臨保險費提升, 環保法規越來越多的限制, 即愈來愈多有 "現代想法" 的台灣人的問題, 所以這種傳統活動的規模逐年變小.  有的縣市舉辦 "環保的" 傳統活動, 可是我覺得這樣子的活動根本不同.  沒有鞭炮的廟會?  沒有燒金紙的廟宇?  我覺得這樣就乾脆不用舉辦了.




祭拜用的香束 Incense Used for Worship

台灣常見到的祭拜香束分為黑, 黃, 紅三種.  黑色常被用在喪事及祭拜鬼魂, 黃色或紅色的香則可用來祀神祭祖及其他各種喜慶.  一般來說, 二尺以下的香多用於家庭祭祀, 二尺以上的香則用於寺廟等場合.  The types of incense commonly used for worship in Taiwan include the black, yellow, and red kinds.  The black type is usually used for funerals and to appease malignant spirits.  The yellow or red kinds can be used for spirits, ancestors, or in any festive occasion.  In most cases, incense sticks less than two feet long are used for home worship, and those longer than two feet are used for temples and related areas.

焚香的意義在於藉著裊裊雲煙, 明光火星及四散香氣上達神界, 引領神明循香下凡, 享用善男信女們準備的豐富祭品, 聽見人們的祈願, 在祭典的儀式中, 占有不可或缺的地位.  Clouds of incense travel from this world to the world of the spirits, to encourage the gods to receive sacred offerings from humankind, and to hear their entreaties.  Incense is indispensable with regard to this kind of ritual observance.


線香 Incense Sticks


排香 Incense Bundles


環香 Incense Coils


香末 Incense Powder


上香的方式 How to Burn Incense

上香, 是向神明表示敬意以及傳達心願的一種儀式.  藉由焚香上升的煙霧, 將我們想要傳達的事情帶給天上的神明, 是與神明溝通最普遍的方式.  Burning incense is a ritual signifying one's respect for the gods.  The clouds which waft up from the incense allow us to pass messages to gods in the celestial realm, and [this burning of incense] is the most common way of communicating with the spirit world.

持香的方式 How to Present [or Hold] Incense

祭拜神明時, 以右手持香, 再用左手扶住右手, 將雙手放於胸前, 然後上舉至鼻頭處, 不可超過眉毛和頭頂, 接著彎腰行禮, 背部呈半月形.  拜三拜後, 可向神明說出姓名, 生辰, 家住何處, 所求何事, 接著再三拜, 心誠則靈.  若是空手朝拜, 則雙手合十, 同樣上舉至鼻頭處, 接著彎腰行禮.  When worshiping the gods, hold the incense in your right hand, and place your left hand over your right.  Hold your hands in front of your chest, and then raise your hands up to the level of your head.  Do not raise your hands above your eyebrows, and bow from the waist, making a half moon shape with your upper torso.  After doing this three times you can tell the god(s) your name, your date of birth, where you live, and the nature of your request.  Then bow three more times and concentrate upon your prayer.  If you are arriving before the gods without incense, place your hands together, raise them to the level of your head, and bow three times in the same fashion.

另外要特別注意的一點是, 祭拜神明時持香的數量必須是奇數, 一般以1, 3, 5, 7支為佳.  In addition, be aware that the number of incense sticks held/presented before any god should be odd, and not even.  In most cases presenting incense in multiples of 1, 3, 5, or 7 is best.

插香的方式 How to Place the Incense

以傳統習俗來說, 插香時應使用左手, 因為人們在生活中習慣使用右手做許多事, 較為汙穢, 對神明不敬.  另外插香應先將一炷清香插在香爐的正中央, 再將第二炷香插在面向神像的右方, 最後將第三炷香插在面向神像的左方.  插完香後, 記得要雙手合十再拜三拜, 才算完成整個插香的程序.  With respect to traditional folk beliefs, incense should be placed inside the pot/ash with the left hand.  Because people usually use their right hand for doing things, it is regarded as "more polluted," and not appropriate to use on the gods' behalf.  You should also place the incense into the middle of the pot/ash, with the next stick of incense placed to the right of the god, and the next stick of incense after that placed to the left.  After placing your incense, you should put your hands together and bow three times in order to properly conclude the ritual.


祭拜的水果與禁忌 Fruits Used for Worship and Related Taboos

在祭拜神明或好兄弟時, 有一些水果是禁止祭拜的, 因為其諧音會招來不好的東西或是不禮貌等等, 在祭拜時千萬要特別注意才行, 不要讓無心之舉帶來無妄之災.  In the worship of gods or wandering spirits some fruits are forbidden.  This is because the sound of their names attracts "bad things" or is considered bad manners.  When worshiping your should always be aware of this, and not let ignorance [of proper etiquette] invite misfortune.

不能拜神的水果 Fruits Unsuitable for Worship

芭樂, 番茄, 釋迦 (鳳梨釋迦): 祭拜神明的水果忌用籽多且籽可食的水果, 據說這一類水果的籽因為可吃又不太好消化, 容易隨著排泄物一起排出, 被視為不潔之物, 所以不能拿來拜神明.  Guava, tomatoes, sugar apples ("pineapple sugar apples"): fruits containing many seeds, or fruits containing edible seeds are unsuitable for worship.  It is said the fruits containing edible seeds are not easily digested, and their nutritional value is [too] easily excreted.  [This type of fruit] is viewed as being "unclean," so it should not be offered to the gods.

不能拜好兄弟的水果 Fruits That Shouldn't be Offered to Ancestors or Other Spirits

香蕉, 李子, 梨子, 鳳梨: 祭拜好兄弟時忌用諧音為 "旺來" 的鳳梨, 以及諧音為 "招你來" 的香蕉, 李子, 梨子等三種水果, 否則, 好兄弟可是會因為你的誠心 "招待" 而到家裡來拜訪.  Bananas, plums, pears, and pineapples: when making offerings to wandering spirits it is forbidden to offer pineapples because of their (nick)name, "prosperity is here." Bananas, which sound like "please come here," and also plums and pears sound, to the spirits, like an invitation to "stay awhile."

適合拜拜的水果 Fruit Suitable for Worship

通常拜拜時所說的 "四果" 指的並不是四樣水果, 而是指四季時令水果.  拜拜時應以1, 3, 5樣奇數水果為主, 或是3, 6, 9的倍數, 而適合祭拜的水果則有: 蘋果, 桃子, 李子, 棗子, 葡萄柚, 柚子, 橘子等等, 其中又以蘋果有 "保平安", 柚子有求 "有子" 的吉祥話最理想.  The "four fruits" usually mentioned in connection with worship are not just four different kinds of fruit, but rather fruits from four different seasons.  When worshiping, fruits should be offered in ratios of 1, 3, and 5, or 3, 6, and 9.  Fruits suitable for worship are apples, peaches, plums, dates, grapefruit, pomelos, and oranges.  Within these fruits, apples carry the special significance of "preserving peace," and grapefruit signify "being fruitful."*

1. If it helps you decide, I've got the book "Taoism" 道教 on my desk, and another book called "Taiwan's Temples Tell Stories" 台灣廟宇說故事 at home.  At home I've also got a book about trains, a book about the development of the shipping industry, and a book about the Taiwan's infrastructure projects over the years.


*"Fruitful" as in "bearing children."

2017年5月18日 星期四

就要這樣拜! 拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship! A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship (1 of 2)


The information below was taken from 就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship!  A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship.  The Chinese was written by Good Friends Studio, and the English was written by me.  以下的內容來自就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通這本書.  下列中文的部分是好朋友工作室作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.



神明廳的擺設與位置 1
Placement and Arrangement of the Household Altar

許多人會在家中供奉神明, 保佑闔家平安.  但是, 神像的擺放位置可是一門大學問.  倘若神像位置擺放正確, 可以改善家運, 保佑子孫, 相反地, 神像的位置如果擺放錯誤, 則可能帶來病痛災厄, 福運遠離.  所以一般而言, 供奉神像時都必須請專業的風水老師在旁指導, 但是以下有關居家風水的神明廳擺放基本小常識, 大家還是瞭解一下, 才能夠避免因無知而招來的厄運, 並且能享福氣安康.  Many people, in order to receive heavenly protection and prosperity, worship gods at home.  The placement of these household gods is, however, a matter requiring deep knowledge.  If the gods are placed correctly, a household will enjoy greater fortune and the family will be protected.  If the gods are placed improperly, however, it may invite sickness and misfortune into the home, and prosperity will be that much more distant.  So in most instances, it is important to place gods as instructed by a teacher of feng shui.2  Below are some important points to take into consideration when using feng shui to place gods inside a house.  Everyone should be aware of these points, so as not to harm one's good fortune through carelessness, and to share in both good luck and health.

1. 神桌的位置 Position of the Altar Table

神桌的設立位置相當重要, 一般來講會擺放在家中的大廳或是獨立的佛堂, 而且該處一定得是陽光充足和空氣流通的位置, 如此一來才能夠聚集旺氣, 為家中成員帶來好運.  一般來講, 神桌最忌諱擺在陰暗不通風的角落, 或是走動太頻繁的走到處, 這兩種地方都很容易讓氣場受到干擾, 不但不能夠得到庇佑, 還可能因此招來厄運.  另外, 一般見到的神桌高度一定都是比人還要 高, 意謂神明在上, 代表人類的敬仰與尊敬之意; 而神桌背後要靠牆面擺放, 代表子孫有所依靠, 神明, 祖先能夠庇蔭後代子孫.  The position of the altar table is very important.  In most homes this altar table is placed in either the living room or a special room set aside for the gods.  The altar table should be located in a place that receives sunlight, and where air circulates freely.  In this way good fortune collects within the room, and the people within it will have good luck.  In most instances the altar table should not be placed in a dark or stuffy corner, or in a place that people walk past too often.  In these two types of places the accumulated good fortune is easily disturbed [or dispersed].  Not only will the household not receive the gods' protection, but misfortune can be the result.  In addition, most altar tables should be taller than a [sitting] person, so that when the gods are placed upon them the respect and reverence of the worshipers is evident.  The altar table should also be placed against a wall.  This [placing of the table against the wall] signifies the way in which one's ancestors, one's family, and one's descendants rely upon the gods.

2. 神像與祖先牌位的放置 Placement of Gods and Ancestor Plaques

神像與祖先牌位的擺放一定要正確, 才能讓家運圓融, 平安順利.  一般來說, 神像面對大門應擺放在左側, 祖先擺放在右側; 神像擺放的順序則應按照中間, 左邊, 右邊依序擺放.  Both the gods and the ancestor plaques must be placed correctly, so that peace and prosperity can surround the family.  In most cases, the idols should be to the left of the door they are facing, and the ancestor [plaques] should be to the right.    Idols should be arranged [in order of importance] from the center to the left, and then to the right.

3. 供奉的神明 Gods to be Worshiped

一般來說, 在家中供神, 並沒有規定一定要供奉什麼神明.  大多數人會在家中供奉福德正神, 觀音佛祖, 媽祖娘娘, 以求一家大小平安順利; 也有人會供奉財神爺, 祈求財運享通, 家中有在做生意的, 則大多會供奉關聖帝君.  家中所供奉的神明, 乃視個人情況而定, 但必須特別注意的一點是無論家中供奉什麼神明, 都應該要祭拜天公, 以表示對天公的尊敬.  There aren't really any restrictions with regard to what gods should be worshiped at home.  Most people worship Tu Di Gong [the "Earth God"], Guanyin, and Matsu at home, to ensure their family's prosperity.  Other people worship the gods of wealth in hopes of securing their fortunes.  In households that are involved in business, Guan Yu [Lord Guan] is worshiped.  The gods worshiped in any household are a reflection of the circumstances in that household.  Aside from this, the only requirement is that the members of the household pray to the Lord of Heaven and show him the proper respect.

4. 供奉的神像數 Number of Gods to be Worshiped

在 "易經" 裡單數代表陽, 偶數代表陰, 陽可以讓萬物滋長, 帶來力量, 陰則會使事物蕭條, 力量變弱, 因此, 家中的神像數應以奇數為宜.  若神像數量太多時, 則可以分為上下層來擺放.  In the Book of Changes [I Ching]3, odd numbers represent "yang" [the positive or male principle], and even numbers represent "yin" [the negative or female principle].  "Yang" gives rise to all things, and brings strength.  "Yin" reduces [or diminishes] things, and makes them weaker.  For this reason, the number of gods within a house should be an odd number.  If the number of gods is too large, they can be arranged in two levels.

5. 神像的高度 Height of Gods

家中的神像高度沒有限制, 只要注意神明的腳不要跟香爐口祈平即可.  因為有一說神明踏盧會進進出出, 較少時間待在家中, 所以只要避開這個細節就好.  There is no restriction upon the height of household gods.  You just need to keep their feet above the level of the pot where the incense is placed.  If the gods "step" into the [smoke of the incense] pot too often, their "presence" within the house is "limited," so one should be attentive to this detail.

6. 神桌的禁忌 Taboos Regarding the Altar Table

1. 不宜對路沖: 容易折損財帛宮, 遭小人, 有意外災害.  Don't place the altar table facing a road.  This will diminish the family's wealth, attract bad sorts of people, and invite disaster.
2. 神桌後面為淋浴間: 烏穢之氣可能導致眾神退位, 無法彰顯神力, 達到庇佑效果.  Don't place the altar table in front of a bathroom.  The foul air may drive the gods away from their positions, and the household will lose their spiritual power and protection.
3.上面不宜有樑: 雖說神力無邊, 但若能和風水搭配則能得最佳效果.  神桌上有樑的話, 容易造成家運被壓抑無法上揚, 出現有志難伸, 懷才不遇的情況.  Don't place the altar table beneath a beam.  Although it is said that spiritual power is omnipresent, an accordance with the principals of feng shui will make [the altar table] most effective.  When there is a beam above the altar table, the household's good fortune is "compromised" [oppressed], and when difficulties arise they will not be overcome.
4. 兩旁不要掛先人遺照: 很多人會在家中牆上掛先人照片追思, 但神明廳掛放先人遺照容易招來外來無形寄宿, 此舉不但不能庇陰子孫, 反而影響家運變弱, 家人易生病發生災難, 因此建議不要懸掛先人照片較好.  Don't hang pictures of departed relatives next to the altar table.  Many people hang pictures of their departed relatives on the walls of their house in remembrance, but if this kind of picture is hung in the same room as the altar table it will invite malicious influences to live in the house.  In this situation the family will not receive spiritual protection, and the household's fortune will be diminished.  It will be easier for the family members to become sick, and to experience misfortune.  For this reason it is advised not to hang pictures of the departed on the walls.
5. 長明燈不宜滅: 神明廳的燈光明亮可以為主人帶來前途光明運勢, 若熄滅則會讓運勢變弱, 導致官司纏身, 所以在能力所及的範圍, 神明桌上的長明燈最好要保持光亮, 並隨時注意燈泡是否會因會壞損而滅.  Keep the lights above [or in] the altar table on.4  The lights in the same room as the altar table bring good fortune to the family.  If they are turned off they will weaken the family's good fortune and invite conflict.  If possible the lights above [or in] the altar table should always be kept on, and the bulbs should be replaced regularly. 




祭拜的金紙種類 
Types of Ceremonial (Ghost) Money5

大抵來說, 祭拜時燒化的紙錢會分為祭神和祭祖兩種; 祭拜神明用的是金紙, 祭拜祖先則為銀紙, 而燒給孤魂野鬼的紙錢則是銀紙中的小銀.  另外還有其他如蓮花座以及經衣 (或稱更衣), 這些物品都有一定的燒化對象及用途, 祭拜時可千萬不要買錯.  For the most part, ceremonial money burned during worship is divided into the type used for gods and the type used for ancestors.  The type used for gods is "gold money," and the type used for ancestors is "silver money."  The type burned for wandering spirits is a type of "silver money" called "little silver."  In addition there is also the "lotus flower offering" and "clothing" (also called "a change of clothes").  These types of ceremonial money all have their intended [divine] recipients, and for the purposes of worship it is imperative that you buy the right type.

神明專用 Used for Gods



金 Yi Gold

(金為任何神祈都通用的金紙. This type of ceremonial money can be used for any god.)
 

福金 Fortune Gold

(用來祭祀土地公和掌管財寶之神明 Used for Tu Di Gong and gods of wealth)



壽金 Longevity Gold

(用來祭拜燒化給一般神祈. used for most gods) 



太極金 Ultimate Gold (Tai Ji Gold)

(用來祭拜玉皇大帝, 三官大帝, 帝君. Used for the Jade Emperor, the Lords of the Three Realms, and Emperor Wen Chang) 



頂極金 Top-Level Gold (Ding Ji Gold)

(祭祀玉皇大帝, 三官大帝, 帝君.  Used for the Jade Emperor, the Lords of the Three Realms, and Emperor Wen Chang) 



四色金 Four-Color Gold

(金, 福金, 壽金, 太極金. The first four types of ceremonial money listed above



五色金 Five-Color Gold

(金, 福金, 壽金, 太極金, 頂極金. The first five types of ceremonial money listed above



天尺金 Heaven-Spanning Gold (Tian Chr Gold)

(用來祭拜玉皇大帝之部將, 三界公及天上諸神. used to worship the court of the Jade Emperor, the Lords of the Three Realms, and any other gods)


天地水庫 Heaven, Earth, and Sea "Ku" (Tian Di Shuei Ku)

(用於消災解厄, 補運 used during times of disaster to restore one's good fortune)


補運金 Luck-Restoring Gold (Bu Yun Gold)

(初一, 十五拜拜時使用 used on the first and fifteenth days of the lunar calendar)


床母衣 Bed Mother Clothes

(又稱婆姐衣... 祭拜床母專用 also called "auntie's clothes... used for worshiping the Bed Mother)


甲馬 The Armored Horse

(送神迎神時使用 used for welcoming and saying farewell to spirits)


雲馬 The Clouded Horse

(送神迎神時使用 used for welcoming and saying farewell to spirits)


高錢 High-Level Money (Kao Money)

(黃色紙用來祀神, 白色則專門用來拜鬼 the yellow kind is used for gods, the white kind is used for ghosts)


五路財神金 Five Gods of Wealth Gold

(用來祭拜財神 used for the gods of wealth)


八路財神金 Eight Gods of Wealth Gold

(用來祭拜財神 used for the gods of wealth)


五路發財金 Fivefold Prosperity Gold (Wu Lu Fa Tsai Gold)

(用來祭拜財神... 內有疏文可以寫上自己的名字或公司行號 used for worshiping the gods of wealth... there are blanks on this money where you can write your name or the name of your company)


發財金 Prosperity Gold (Fa Tsai Gold)

(祭拜神明時使用, 以求招財納福 used for the worship of gods, or to request good fortune)


財神寶衣 Fine Robes for the Gods of Wealth

(祭拜神明時使用, 以求招財納福 used during the worship of gods, and when requesting good fortune)


壽生蓮花 Longevity Lotus (Shou Sheng Lotus) 

(祭拜神明或為神明祝壽用 used for gods or to celebrate longevity)

祖先, 往生者, 孤魂專用 Used for Ancestors, the Dead, and Wandering Spirits




大銀 Big Silver6

(台灣人掃墓和祭祖一定會用到 this is always used during Tomb-Sweeping Festival for one's deceased relatives)


小銀 Little Silver

(大多用來祀拜孤魂 primarily used for wandering spirits)


經衣 Clothing

(代表著衣物和生活日用品, 專門用來普渡孤魂野鬼 represents clothes and daily necessities, used only for ghosts during Ghost Month)


金白錢 White Gold Money (Jin Bai Money)

(主要用來祭祀城隍爺東獄大帝等神祈的部將, 或用來祭拜好兄弟 primarily used for worshiping the City God, the Emperor of the Eastern Hell, or related dieties.  Also used for appeasing hungry ghosts)


貼箔元寶 Paper Ingots (Tie Bo Yuan Bao)

(祭拜祖先, 孤魂, 往生者用 used for worshiping ancestors, wandering spirits, and the living)


往生蓮花 Living Lotus (Wang Sheng Lotus)

(是民間用來燒化給祖先的物品 this is a [ceremonial] good burned for one's ancestors)


庫錢 Savings/Stock Money (Ku Money)

(死時必須帶更多的錢回到陰間, 而這些帶回去的錢也就是俗稱的庫錢 when you die you need to take a lot of money back to the underworld.  This type of money is called Savings Money)


往生錢 Living Money (Wang Sheng Money)

(為超度先人之用 used for ancestors)


墓紙 Grave Paper

(清明掃墓時壓在墳墓上的墓紙 A type of paper pressed onto graves during Ching Ming Festival)

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Celestial Economics 天上的經濟學
Taiwanese Culture 台灣文化 (3 of 3)
Culture Shock 文化衝擊
Driving between Jia Yi and Pingtung 在嘉義, 屏東一帶開車 1

1. More literally, "Placement and Arrangement of the Household Altar in the Room Set Aside for It."  In older, more traditional houses there is a 神明廳 or "god room" set aside for the altar table.

2. I'm sure everyone's somewhat familiar with 風水 feng shui, or Chinese geomancy.  To be such a "feng shui teacher" can be a very lucrative practice, considering that the principles of feng shui extend to every single item on the property.  Wealthy people pay fortunes to these "teachers" to arrange their entire house.

3. I Ching is, unfortunately, the most accepted translation of this important book.  "Yi Jing" (易經) is a much closer approximation of the Chinese name.

4. A lot of altar tables have built-in lights.

5. A few notes on this part. 1) The words for 錢 "money" and 金"gold" in this context usually imply the same thing.  2) The translations of money types in this part are only approximations, and I doubt you'd see them anywhere else.  In many cases the Chinese name is offered alongside the English translation, and in my opinion this Chinese name would be the closest representation of the money type's meaning/use.  Most people wouldn't think about what the 庫 in 庫錢 really means.

6. You may notice Big Silver and Little Silver types of money on the road, or thrown onto a building.  Sometimes this is done to shame people, as if they've dishonored their (or your) ancestors.  Sometimes this is also done to appease ghosts living in a place people assume is haunted.